**Models**

**Science is a result of the human ability to perceive time and change and, an innate desire to understand the past and present, then use that
understanding to predict, and hopefully, affect the future.
Science is a collection of Models which relate cause and effect.
Logic and mathematics provide structure and the language for models. **

Pure Science involves philosopy and **Experimental Science** involves engineering.
Science has become a mix of lofty ideas and marketing, for example, ** Bell's Theorem** (lofty...Google it) and

**"You can do anything you wish with the Universe, except ignore it."** M. R. Neal

Models are applied under **boundary conditions** which limit the range of phenomena that can be successfully described by the model.
There is a principle called **Superposition** which requires that the predictions of new models yield the same results as
older successful models within the old boundaries.
Three physical **Models** are in current use to predict and describe the behavior of the observed universe.

__Newtonian Mechanics__

This is the oldest model still in use.
It effectively deals with phenomena directly apparent to the five human senses and, to a limited extent, phenomena detected by older technologies.
Modern technology has allowed us to observe phenomena well outside the boundaries of our unaided senses.
These phenomena include extremely small and extremely large objects and objects moving at incredible speeds.

__Relativistic Mechanics__

Albert Einstein developed the **Special Relativity Model** to deal with object motions and clock behavior at velocities nearing the speed of light.
His **General Relativity Model** extends **Special Relativity** to deal with gravity.
Einstein's relativity models conform to **superposition** because they "reduce" to **Newtonian Mechanics Model** formats when applied
to situations well described by **Newtonian Mechanics**.

__Quantum Mechanics__

This model accurately deals with phenomena under boundary conditions outside of both the **Newtonian**
and **Special Relativity** models but, attempts to apply it to include part of **General Relativity**, specifically gravity,
have proven to be very difficult.
**Quantum Mechanics'** validation is that **it works** outside the boundaries of other models.
The experimentally verified part of **quantum mechanics** is called the **Standard Model**.

The **Standard Model** contains numerous **extensions** like **Electrodynamics** and **Chromodynamics**.
It also contains rules, two of which are critical when dealing with astronomical objects like **White Dwarf Stars**
and **Neutron Stars**.
One is the
**Pauli Exclusion Principle**
and the other is the
**Heisenburg Uncertainty Principle**.
Both of these **principles** are "rules" which prohibit certain conditions from being valid in the model.
In **Quantum Mechanics**, any condition is assumed to exist in nature unless it is specifically prohibited.

__Future(?) Mechanics__

Einstein, Maxwell and others wondered how electricity, magnetism and light worked.
That enquiry resulted in the **Relativity Models** which are broadly based on force fields described mathematically as **continuous** functions.
Using these models, humans created **analog technologies** like radios.
Some devices, like photoelectric cells, were not well understood in terms of these models.
The **Quantum** model was developed to explain these weird **digital technologies**.
The mathematics used to describe the quantum model is considerably more complex than that used to describe the older models.
The big difference is that, for tiny "particles," one can only determine a "probable" location if one knows the particle's speed and direction.
If a particle's exact location is known, it's impossible to determine its speed or direction.

Light behaves like a wave, with speed and direction, when moving through space, i.e., its location is "fuzzy." '
However, it behaves like a particle when it's absorbed at a specific location.
A single particle of light, a "photon," can also be observed in two different places at the same time.
Is light a wave or a particle?

Two different models must be used to describe these behaviors and this makes physicists very uncomfortable.
This conundrum is called the **Wave-Particle Duality**.
Theoretical physicists are currently working on several new models which describe this duality.
Stay tuned.